The North Magnetic Pole
The North Magnetic Pole is distinct from the Geographic North Pole.
It moves over time due to magnetic changes in the Earth's core.
Here the planet's magnetic field points vertically.
A magnetic compass needle will point to it until but loses direction on getting closer.
Svalbard is an archipelago, and Spitsbergen is the largest island in the archipelago.
Spitsbergen is the only island with any major human settlement.
Around 60% of Svalbard is made up of glaciers.
Longyearbyen has the northernmost gourmet restaurant in the world: Huset.
The largest high-Arctic land area and the world's largest island.
- Contains the world's largest national park.
- 81% of Greenland’s land is covered by an ice sheet.
- Home to the world’s fastest moving glacier.
Novaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic)
Novaya Zemlya consists of two islands parted by the Matochkin Shar.
The Northern Island, Severny is mostly mountainous.
The Southern Island, Yuzhny is by and large tundra.
Its mountain chain is part of the Urals which divide Europe and Asia.
Colloquially known as the ‘Far North’, the Canadian Arctic has three territories:
- Northwest Territories
Franz Josef Land (Russian Arctic)
Franz Josef Land is a tightly-knit group of about 191 islands.
85% of Franz Josef Land is glaciated.
The archipelago is uninhabited except for small weather stations.
Arctic poppies can be found on all the islands.
As anyone who's paid attention in Geography class should know, the Arctic Ocean is the world's smallest and shallowest ocean, covering an area of 1,056,000km² (542,427,000 sq. mi). The Arctic is altmost completely covered by sea ice in winter and partly through summer, when the heat can melt away up to 50% of the Arctic's sea ice.
The Arctic generally has very little coastline, and is mostly made up from the Arctic Ocean. The North Pole is in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.
Unlike many other oceans of the world, the Arctic Ocean has very low salinity due to the inflow from rivers and streams and lack of outflow with the salty waters of other oceans. The lack of evaporation also helps keep the water of the Arctic Ocean fresh. Glaciers and icebergs are therefore made from fresh water, and make up around 20% of Earth's fresh water supply.